Tag Archives: United States

History of Coffee: Part IV – Commercialisation of Coffee

For many connoisseurs, the period from the mid-19th Century to the late 20th Century is the ‘Dark Age’ of coffee. During this era, coffee lost its Middle-Eastern mystical charm and became commercialised and, quite frankly, ordinary.

When coffee was first introduced into Britain during the 17th Century, it was a drink enjoyed by every social class. While the rich would enjoy coffee almost ceremonially in their social clubs, the poor saw coffee as an essential nutrient, a hot drink to replace a hot meal, or hunger suppressant. It was only a matter of time, with the advancement of technology, that large companies would form to take advantage of the coffee commodity.

Traditionally coffee was roasted in the home or in the coffeehouse. A practice imported from the Middle-East was to simply stir-fry green beans in an iron pan over a fire till brown. Some coffeehouses used a more sophisticated method of a cylindrical unit hung above a fire with a handle to rotate the beans inside. Both these methods were only capable of roasting small batches of coffee, a couple of kilos or several pounds at most, which ensured that the coffee was always fresh.

However, with the onset of the industrial revolution and mechanisation, coffee roasting technology soon improved. Commercial coffee roasters were being invented which were capable of roasting much larger batches of coffee. It was now possible for the few to meet the coffee needs of the masses.

It was in the United States where coffee initially started to be commercialised. In 1865, John Arbuckle marketed the first commercially available packages of ground, roasted coffee. His brand, ‘Ariosa’, was sold over a far larger area then any other coffee roaster. Instead of being confined to a small area close to his roasting factory, Arbuckle was able to establish his coffee as a regional brand. Others soon followed suit and, by World War I, there were a number of regional roasters including companies such as Folgers, Hill Brothers, and Maxwell House. These companies offered customers consistent quality and convenient packaging for use in the home, but at a price: freshness. It could be several weeks, or even months, before the end product would reach the customer.

One approach to prolonging the freshness of roasted coffee was to glaze it with a glutinous or gelatinous matter. After the coffee beans had been roasted, a glaze would be poured over them, which would form a hard, protective barrier around the bean. Once such glaze patented by John Arbuckle in 1868, consisted of using: a quart of water, one ounce of Irish moss, half an ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of gelatine, one ounce of white sugar, and twenty-four eggs, per hundred pounds of coffee. Arbuckle experimented with many different glazes over the years, eventually settling on a sugar based glaze. In fact, Arbuckle became such a prolific user of sugar that he entered into the sugar business rather then give a profit to others for the huge quantities he required.

So why were customers willing to buy this coffee? Once ground, coffee quickly loses its flavour and therefore should be consumed as soon as possible (at the very latest within 48 hours). But this was the age of the brand, where consistency ruled king over quality. Local roasters would often produce excellent coffee, but they could also produce foul coffee, occasionally containing a number of adulterations. Customers wanted to trust what they were buying. They wanted their coffee to taste exactly the same, time and time again.

The first coffee brand to come to Britain was Kenco. In 1923, a co-operative of Kenyan Coffee farmers set up a coffee shop in Sloan Square (London), called the Kenyan Coffee Company, to distribute high quality coffee beans around Britain. Their shop proved very popular and their brand of coffee (renamed Kenco in 1962) soon spread throughout the UK.

Worse was to come to the brew known as coffee. As regional roasters grew into national roasters and then into international roasters, their pursuit of profit intensified. Traditionally coffee came from the ‘arabica’ variety of coffee bush. But in the 1850s, the French and Portuguese began to cultivate a different variety of coffee bush, known as ‘robusta’, on the west coast of Africa between Gabon and Angola. Robusta beans were (and still are) cheaper then arabica beans as they are easier to grow and have an inferior flavour. Coffee roasters looking to minimise their production costs started blending robusta beans with arabica beans in increasing quantities. They also used shorter roast times, to reduce weight loss stopping the coffee from fully developing its complex flavour.

However the lowest point for coffee comes with the introduction of instant coffee – a drink bearing little resemblance in taste to actual coffee. Although the first commercially produced instant coffee, called ‘Red E Coffee’, invented by George Constant Washington, an English chemist living in Guatemala, was marketed in 1909, it is Nestlé who are generally attributed with the invention of instant coffee. In 1930, Nestlé were approached by the Instituto do Café (Brazilian Coffee Institute) to help find a solution to their coffee surpluses. They believed that a new coffee product that was soluble in hot water, yet retained its flavour, would help stimulate World coffee sales. After seven years of research and frequent tasting, scientist Max Mortgenthaler finally achieved the desired results and, on 1st April 1938, Nescafé was launched, first in Switzerland and then later in Britain.

Some claim that it was the introduction of commercial television in 1956 that acted as a catalyst to the success of instant coffee in Britain. The commercial breaks were too short a time in which to brew a cup of tea, but time enough for an instant coffee. There is probably some truth to this claim as, by the 1960s, the majority of the tea industry started producing tea bags, an invention by Thomas Sullivan over half a century earlier (1904). Tea bags were seen as more convenient, simpler and quicker to use then traditional loose leaf tea and so could compete against instant coffee.

The coffee industry soon realised the association between commercial breaks and coffee drinking and started investing heavily in television advertising. Probably the most famous series of coffee advertisements were made for Nescafé Gold Blend. First aired in 1987, these advertisements focused on the sexual chemistry between a couple, played by Anthony Head and Sharon Maughan, acted out in a mini soap opera. The advertisements gripped the whole nation, featuring as frequently as Eastenders or Coronation Street as topics of conversation. This original series of advertisements ran for ten years, increasing sales of Gold Blend by 40% in the first five years (there were two further, less successful, sets of advertisements with different actors). Such was the profile of these advertisements, that they even featured as a news article on the ‘News at Ten’.

With the coffee industry focused on price rather then quality, it was little wonder that coffee sales became stagnant. Coffee drinking was now more about a caffeine fix rather then about savouring the taste, to be drunk in a break from work, rather then to be enjoyed over conversation or while reading the newspaper. Unsurprisingly the younger generations born in the 70s and 80s turned their back on bitter coffee, preferring sugary soft drinks such as Coca Cola and Pepsi for their caffeine kicks.

Concert Tickets Online

You have the paper in the entertainment section, and found that your favorite singer or musical group comes to town for a concert. Now begins a very funny, because you’ll have to find a way to get the tickets you want. If the group or singer is very popular, it may mean that you actually go to the execution ground and stand in line to the cashier to buy tickets. If you do not have time for it, still want to get Front Row concert tickets, there is an easier way, which is to buy concert tickets
tickets online with concert ticket broker. Concert ticket brokers make it easy to find and purchase Front Row concert tickets you want in a nice price with no fuss.

Once you reach your concert ticket broker website, there are several ways you can find concert tickets there. Tickets for concerts are usually sorted by the name of a musical group or artist, as well as in cities in which they occur. This is a big time saver for you, because you can quickly jump to the group you want to see, and what their concert schedule for every major city in the United States.

Tickets for concerts are also listed in order of performance at each location. The best concert tickets brokers will offer seating charts so you can see exactly where the location, helping you make a good choice for the seat.

You can also search concert tickets for the number of tickets you want. Number of tickets varies depending on each proposal, so you’ll be looking at an offer that meets your needs.

Ticket prices are also available when searching for tickets
tickets for a concert ticket broker’s website. Famous ticket brokers have no hidden fees, so the price displayed on the ticket is the price you will pay. Ticket prices vary, so you can easily comparison shop for the best seats at the best prices on easy-to-use ticket broker web directory.

To save your credit card information safe, you want to make sure that when you buy concert tickets online, that site is encrypted and secure online shopping. The ticket broker must also guarantee that you’ll get the real tickets, which will arrive in ample time for you to use them.

You can spend time and effort trying to buy the tickets themselves, but why bother? It’s much easier to buy concert tickets online from your ticket broker.

Mobile Suit Gundam Seed Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume Item Ecs002619

Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume Item ECS002619 ,Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume # Wholesale Price: $99.00 ,buy Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume on cosplaygate.com

Cosplay Costumes

Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume

o Item ECS002619
o ( customer Review)
o Retail price: $148.50
o Wholesale Price: $99.00
o Start from: 1Unit(s)
o This item is:
o
Process Time Decided By The Unit(s) Of The Orders
1 Unit Need 10 Process Working Days
2-5 Units Need 10 Process Working Days
6-9 Units Need 12 Process Working Days
10+ Units Need 14 Process Working Days
Large Order:
The Return & Exchange Rules
To know more about the return and exchange rules of out items!click here

* Total$99.00 + Free Shipping

Start from: Unit(s)

Estimated Shipping Time

* Processing Time: 10 – 15 working Days

* Delivery time:Delivery time is depended on the destination country.

Payment methods available in CosplayGate.com:

* PayPal
* Western Union(Not Now)
* credit card(pay with paypal)

If you want to see further details, please click the following link Payment Methods to get more details .
Shipping & Delivery:
Worldwide shipping from CosplayGate is fast and safe.

Total delivery time is the sum of the shipping time as well as the processing time, which includes selecting the product, checking quality and packing the product.
Most products need an average of 10 – 15 business days to process.
Tailor-made clothing and bridal wear needs 10 – 17 business days for processing, while other clothes,lolita clothings, and cosplay items need 10 – 18 business days to process.
For more Shipping details click shipping policy.

* Delivery time:Delivery time is depended on the destination country.West Europe (Britain, France, Ireland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg.etc.), North American,Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Canada, the United States, Mexico) orders usually can reach clients door in 5 – 7 days, others would be delivered within 5 – 9days.)
Ship to:

We ship to worldwide, no matter where you live in. For more Shipping details click Shipping Policy.

* Choose Your Size:

* Contact Us
* Payment methods
* Shipping & Delivery
* Ask questions about this product

Description:

Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume
Make you the same as Lacus Clyne in this Mobile Suit Gundam SEED singer version cosplay costume for cosplay show.

Size Chart

Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume Item ECS002619 ,Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume # Wholesale Price: $99.00 ,buy Mobile Suit Gundam SEED Lacus Clyne Singer Version Cosplay Costume on cosplaygate.com