5 Different Types of Printed Circuit Boards

A printed circuit board (PCB) is a standard component in many different electronic gadgets, such as computers, radars, beepers, etc. They are made from a variety of materials with laminate, composite and fiberglass the most common. Also, the type of circuit board can vary with the intended use. Let’s take a look at five of the different types:

Single sided – this is the most typical circuit board and is built with a single layer or base material. The single layer is coated with a conductive material like copper. They may also have a silk screen coat or a protective solder mask on top of the copper layer. A great advantage of this type of PCB is the low production cost and they are often used in mass-produced items.

Double sided – this is much like the single sided, but has the conductive material on both sides. There are many holes in the board to make it easy to attach metal parts from the top to bottom side. This type of circuit board increases operational flexibility and is a practical option to build the more dense circuit designs. This board is also relatively low-cost. However, it still isn’t a practical option for the most complex circuits and is unable to work with technology that reduces electromagnetic interference. They are typically used in amplifiers, power monitoring systems, and testing equipment.

Multi-layer – the multi-layer circuit board is built with extra layers of conductive materials. The high number of layers which can reach 30 or more means it is possible to create a circuit design with very high flexibility. The individual layers are separated by special insulating materials and substrate board. A great benefit of this type of board is the compact size, which helps to save space and weight in a relatively small product. Also, they are mostly used when it is necessary to use a high-speed circuit.

Flexible – this is a very versatile circuit board. It is not only designed with a flexible layer, but also available in the single, double, or multi-layer boards. They are a great option when it is necessary to save space and weight when building a particular device. Also, they are appreciated for high ductility and low mass. However, the flexible nature of the board can make them more difficult to use.

Rigid – the rigid circuit board is built with a solid, non-flexible material for its layers. They are typically compact in size and able to handle the complex circuit designs. Plus, the signal paths are easy to organize and the ability to maintain and repair is quite straightforward.

Precision Carbon Steel Pipe Pickling Process

In the rolling of seamless steel tubes, especially in the production process of precision seamless steel tubes, how does the acid pickling process proceed? Today, the mysterious veil is unveiled for you!

The use of an acid solution to remove scale and rust from steel surfaces is called pickling. Iron oxides (Fe3O4, Fe2O3, FeO, etc.), such as scales and rust, chemically react with the acid solution to form salts that are dissolved in the acid solution and removed. Pickling acids include sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, and mixed acids.

Mainly impregnated pickling, jet pickling and acid paste rust removal. In general, the impregnation pickling method is generally used, and the spray method can be used in mass production. Steel parts are generally pickled in 10% to 20% (by volume) sulfuric acid solution at a temperature of 40°C. When the iron content in the solution exceeds 80g/L and the ferrous sulfate exceeds 215g/L, the acid solution should be changed. At room temperature, pickling of steel with 20% to 80% (by volume) hydrochloric acid solution is not prone to over-corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. Due to the great effect of acid on metal corrosion, corrosion inhibitors need to be added. After cleaning, the metal surface becomes silver white, and the surface is passivated to improve the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel.

In order to eliminate the surface adsorption of the diatomaceous earth carrier and reduce the tailing of the chromatographic peaks, the carrier must be acid-washed or alkali-washed prior to use. Pickling is carried out by dipping the carrier with 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid for 2 hours or heating with concentrated hydrochloric acid for 30 minutes, filtering, washing with water to neutrality, and drying. Pickling removes impurities such as iron, aluminum, calcium, and magnesium on the surface but does not remove silanol groups. Pickling supports are suitable for the analysis of acidic samples.

Degreasing and derusting the surface of precision seamless steel tubes to prepare for the next process. In the production process, the pickling process is to remove the surface oxide skin, after the lubrication treatment (carbon steel – phosphorus saponification, stainless steel – tallow lime, copper aluminum – oiled), with the old process – copper plating), and then Carry out deep processing. If the steel pipe is not pickled and there may be oxides and oil on the surface, the phosphating solution cannot remove them and the quality of phosphating will be reduced.

The Main Parts of Sanitary Butterfly Valves

If you have worked for a long time in the pharmaceutical and beverage industry, you know how important the butterfly valve is. But do you really know how they work? Better yet, do you know the main parts that make a butterfly valve?

Butterfly valves are used to control the flow of fluids. The structure and mechanism of a butterfly faucet are both similar to those of a ball valve. This means a spherical disc with a hole and a rod that passes through the disc so that when the faucet is open, the fluid supposed to flow through it will flow transparently. When the faucet is closed, the flow will obviously be blocked. There are four main parts that allow the sanitary butterfly valves to work: the body, the seat, the handle and the operator. Most high-performance butterfly valves have bodies that can easily fit between two pipes. This allows the valves to increase productivity. Keep in mind that not all valves are the same. Some are designed for drinks while others are designed for pharmaceutical drugs.

The technology behind sanitary butterfly valves has grown steadily over time. This explains why valves are used in many industries today. The regular butterfly, for example, comes from the group or rather family of quarter-turn faucets in a wide range of sizes for different uses and handling different degrees of temperature and pressure. The larger the size of a butterfly valve, the more pressure it can withstand. Each part of a butterfly valve contributes in one way or another to its usefulness and functionality. The pieces depend on each other. In other words, the valve may not work at all if a part is damaged or develops a glitch. The two most important parts are:

• Disc – The valve incorporates the use of a large rotating disc as it is a control device. It serves as the main fluid passage that the faucet controls. A first use of the disc was mainly to control the flow of water in the plumbing systems. This is logical because the valve is designed to be used to isolate and regulate the jet of water and other fluids. Keep in mind that the faucet can also be used to control the entry and exit of air in car carburetors.

• Seat – The seat uses the inference adjustment between the edge of the disc and the seat to ensure that the valve stops. The seat can be stuck to the body or can be stuck. The seat materials can be made of polymers or metal. The metal is mainly used when the valve has to withstand extreme temperatures.

Adamant Valves design and manufacture a wide range of stainless steel sanitary valves and fittings such as sanitary butterfly valves, sanitary ball valves, sanitary check valves, sanitary sight glasses, and sanitary unions, etc. They are widely used in the dairy, food, beverage,

Why It Benefits to Use a Generator

A power outage can lead to many problems for both homes and businesses. Life support machinery, lighting, and heating systems can be instantly lost when a storm or a similar event takes out the main power. Let’s take a look at several of the reasons to use the generator:

Construction sites

A typical use for the generator is on construction sites where there are plenty of power tools to operate, such as industrial lights, spray guns for painting, nail guns, etc. Any remote or newly developed site isn’t likely to have access to the electric grid, so this will be the only way to get power.


Any homes or businesses that are located in an area that experiences heavy rain storms or other acts of nature that can take out the power will certainly benefit from a backup source of power. In the event of a power outage, the generator will make it a lot easier to stay independent and carry on as close to normal until the main electrical supply is back. Using the generator means it is possible to continue to eat hot meals, stay warm, and make sure the main appliances, like the fridge continue to run.

Also, with the increase in the elderly generation, there are more households that have the medical hardware in the home, such as the oxygen-producing machines which demand a constant source of power. Even a short loss of power can be very inconvenient, so the simple process of installing a generator can help to save lives in this type of situation. Additionally, there are many people who rely on electric scooters or a stair lift to get around which will stop working.


Farming is an industry that needs to continue to work at all times. In an effort to prevent a farm coming to a stand-still after a storm, the generators will ensure the essential electrical equipment is kept working. For instance, it will be necessary to keep power going to continue production, feed livestock, maintain the freshness of food supplies, and keep the lighting on.

Outdoor events

Beyond the ability to give an essential source of power in the event of an outage, the generators are a practical option for outdoor and recreational events, such as barbecues, garden parties, off the grip campsites and festivals. They give a constant source of power which is very useful to plug-in speakers, keep things cool, power fans and light up the area.